History of Photography and Nature

The his­to­ry of pho­tog­ra­phy has roots in remote antiq­ui­ty with the dis­cov­ery of the prin­ci­ple of the cam­era obscu­ra (a dark room) and the obser­va­tion that some sub­stances are vis­i­bly altered by expo­sure to light. As far as is known, nobody thought of bring­ing these two phe­nom­e­na togeth­er to cap­ture cam­era images in per­ma­nent form until around 1800, when Thomas Wedg­wood made the first reli­ably doc­u­ment­ed although unsuc­cess­ful attempt. In the mid-1820s, Nicéphore Niépce suc­ceed­ed, but sev­er­al days of expo­sure in the cam­era were required and the ear­li­est results were very crude. Niépce’s asso­ciate Louis Daguerre went on to devel­op the daguerreo­type process, the first pub­licly announced pho­to­graph­ic process, which required only min­utes of expo­sure in the cam­era and pro­duced clear, fine­ly detailed results. It was com­mer­cial­ly intro­duced in 1839, a date gen­er­al­ly accept­ed as the birth year of prac­ti­cal pho­tog­ra­phy.

The met­al-based daguerreo­type process soon had some com­pe­ti­tion from the paper-based calo­type neg­a­tive and salt print process­es invent­ed by William Hen­ry Fox Tal­bot. Sub­se­quent inno­va­tions reduced the required cam­era expo­sure time from min­utes to sec­onds and even­tu­al­ly to a small frac­tion of a sec­ond; intro­duced new pho­to­graph­ic media which were more eco­nom­i­cal, sen­si­tive or con­ve­nient, includ­ing roll films for casu­al use by ama­teurs; and made it pos­si­ble to take pic­tures in nat­ur­al col­or as well as in black-and-white.

The com­mer­cial intro­duc­tion of com­put­er-based elec­tron­ic dig­i­tal cam­eras in the 1990s soon rev­o­lu­tion­ized pho­tog­ra­phy. Dur­ing the first decade of the 21st cen­tu­ry, tra­di­tion­al film-based pho­to­chem­i­cal meth­ods were increas­ing­ly mar­gin­al­ized as the prac­ti­cal advan­tages of the new tech­nol­o­gy became wide­ly appre­ci­at­ed and the image qual­i­ty of mod­er­ate­ly priced dig­i­tal cam­eras was con­tin­u­al­ly improved.

Добавить комментарий

Ваш e-mail не будет опубликован. Обязательные поля помечены *