Selfie in the space is so fun

Space is the bound­less three-dimen­sion­al extent in which objects and events have rel­a­tive posi­tion and direc­tion. Phys­i­cal space is often con­ceived in three lin­ear dimen­sions, although mod­ern physi­cists usu­al­ly con­sid­er it, with time, to be part of a bound­less four-dimen­sion­al con­tin­u­um known as space­time. The con­cept of space is con­sid­ered to be of fun­da­men­tal impor­tance to an under­stand­ing of the phys­i­cal uni­verse. How­ev­er, dis­agree­ment con­tin­ues between philoso­phers over whether it is itself an enti­ty, a rela­tion­ship between enti­ties, or part of a con­cep­tu­al frame­work.

Debates con­cern­ing the nature, essence and the mode of exis­tence of space date back to antiq­ui­ty; name­ly, to trea­tis­es like the Timaeus of Pla­to, or Socrates in his reflec­tions on what the Greeks called khôra , or in the Physics of Aris­to­tle (Book IV, Delta) in the def­i­n­i­tion of topos , or in the lat­er “geo­met­ri­cal con­cep­tion of place” as “space qua exten­sion” in the Dis­course on Place  of the 11th-cen­tu­ry Arab poly­math Alhazen. Many of these clas­si­cal philo­soph­i­cal ques­tions were dis­cussed in the Renais­sance and then refor­mu­lat­ed in the 17 th cen­tu­ry, par­tic­u­lar­ly dur­ing the ear­ly devel­op­ment of clas­si­cal mechan­ics. In Isaac Newton’s view, space was absolute-in the sense that it exist­ed per­ma­nent­ly and inde­pen­dent­ly of whether there was any mat­ter in the space. Oth­er nat­ur­al philoso­phers, notably Got­tfried Leib­niz, thought instead that space was in fact a col­lec­tion of rela­tions between objects, giv­en by their dis­tance and direc­tion from one anoth­er. In the 18th cen­tu­ry, the philoso­pher and the­olo­gian George Berke­ley­at­tempt­ed to refute the “vis­i­bil­i­ty of spa­tial depth” in his Essay Towards a New The­o­ry of Vision. Lat­er, the meta­physi­cian Immanuel Kant­said that the con­cepts of space and time are not empir­i­cal ones derived from expe­ri­ences of the out­side world—they are ele­ments of an already giv­en sys­tem­at­ic frame­work that humans pos­sess and use to struc­ture all expe­ri­ences. Kant referred to the expe­ri­ence of “space” in his Cri­tique of Pure Rea­son as being a sub­jec­tive “pure a pri­ori form of intu­ition”.

In the 19th and 20th cen­turies math­e­mati­cians began to exam­ine geome­tries that are non-Euclid­ean, in which space is con­ceived as curved, rather than flat. Accord­ing to Albert Einstein’s the­o­ry of gen­er­al rel­a­tiv­i­ty, space around grav­i­ta­tion­al fields devi­ates from Euclid­ean space. Exper­i­men­tal tests of gen­er­al rel­a­tiv­i­ty have con­firmed that non-Euclid­ean geome­tries pro­vide a bet­ter mod­el for the shape of space.

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